2010 New Scholar Award in Aging

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2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Ischemic disease of heart, brain, or limbs is almost a sine qua non of advanced age. Most people in the developed world eventually die from ischemic causes. Ischemic tissues can create new blood vessels (angiogenesis), in an attempt to recruit more oxygen and nutrients. That response, however,...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging

Aging is a complex process, associated with many changes on different levels from single molecules to hormonal regulation of the whole organism. One mechanism believed to be central to the aging of cells and tissues is cumulative damage to cellular macromolecules, such as proteins, lipids and...  >> MORE

2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Animals have evolved abilities to sense and respond to environmental conditions so that they can postpone growth and reproduction in unfavorable conditions. Research shows that the signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms responsible are also capable of extending adult lifespan. My research...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Caloric restriction (CR) is the most robust and reproducible way to delay or prevent age-related degeneration and disease in mammals. Although the mechanism accounting for these benefits remains poorly understood, a growing body of evidence implicates the sirtuin enzymes, a conserved family of...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Bacteria associated with the human body, referred to as the microbiome, outnumber human cells by at least ten-to-one. Many of these bacteria are beneficial and even essential for our health, but they can also cause disease when disrupted. Metagenomic studies suggest which bacteria are present in...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
My goal is to identify factors that predispose older individuals to the development of colorectal cancer. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases dramatically after the age of 50. Interestingly, the incidence rates for men and women diverge at this same time point such that relative risk for...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
As tissues get older their ability to recover from damage decreases. This is because the self-renewing and pluripotency capacities of stem cells decrease with age. Germ cells, responsible for making eggs and sperm, are a unique type of stem cell: they are often self-renewing, and their progeny (...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Aging is a biological process common to almost all eukaryotes. It is characterized by the declining ability to respond to stress, homeostatic imbalance and increased risk of disease. On the cellular level, the process of aging manifests itself in senescence, the permanent loss of ability to divide...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Reduced activity of the TOR pathway extends invertebrate lifespan, and, in mice, pharmacologic reduction of TOR signaling during adulthood extends life. In other models of extended longevity, genetic modifications of the nervous system are sufficient to extend life. Our project aims to determine...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
A striking feature of early, normal aging in neurons is loss of plasticity and regenerative growth in response to injury. The mechanisms that link aging to intrinsic loss of regeneration are unclear. A better understanding of the aging mechanisms that govern loss of regeneration is critical for...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Melanocyte stem cells supply mature melanocytes that are responsible for hair pigmentation by producing pigment. These melanocyte stem cells are maintained in an immature state in a specialized area within the hair follicle known as the bulge. As melanocyte stem cells mature, they migrate to...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Nuclear function and nuclear organization are inextricably linked. The nucleoskeleton is a protein network that maintains the structural integrity of the nucleus and provides a framework for its functional organization. The intermediate filament lamin A/C is an integral component of the...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
For many individuals, cognitive decline with advanced age is gradual and relatively mild, but in others, the process can accelerate and rapidly progress to severe forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. While there are numerous markers that indicate an increased risk for later cognitive...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Aging/longevity is one of the most complex human traits, and is influenced by variations in inherited factors. I will analyze genetic differences of two outbred lines of rat that have been selectively bred for low and high endurance running ability across >26 generations. The low capacity runners...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
The mammalian brain maintains the ability to generate new neurons in the face of advancing aging and injury. This regenerative capacity derives from resident stem cells and their depletion may be responsible for cognitive decline during aging. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for neural stem...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Maintenance of proper protein function (protein homeostasis) is critical and at the cellular level it is achieved by rigorous protein quality control, which involves mechanisms such as protein folding and protein degradation among others. It is well established that with age protein homeostasis...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
The unique ability of stem cells to produce large numbers of many different cell types in the body make them an extremely valuable tool in regenerative medicine. However, since cells accumulate genetic defects with age, stem cells derived from older individuals may be more limited in their utility...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
An understanding of the genetic factors that influence aging could lead to the identification of potential therapeutic targets to attenuate the suffering caused by debilitating health problems. Aging is conserved across species and single mutations within orthologous genes in nematodes, flies, and...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
The recent realization that genes involved in protein quality control exert a major impact over life span has spurred efforts to investigate the relationship between protein homeostasis and aging.

Much remains to be learned about the involvement of protein turnover in nuclear envelopathies....  >> MORE

2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Aging is associated with an increased risk for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These diseases are often caused by a perturbation of the fine balance between protein synthesis, folding, localization, activity and turnover. For example, controlled protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Increasing evidence suggests that stem cell dysfunction may play a central role in human disease, particularly aging and cancer. Many of the genetic and environmental factors that modulate longevity have been identified in invertebrate model organisms, such as fruit flies and roundworms. However,...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging

Growing evidence suggests that one of the earliest events in age-related neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) is the substantial loss of synapses. Synapse loss associated with cognitive decline is also part of the normal aging process; however the factors that trigger...  >> MORE

2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Age-related declines in muscle mass and strength contribute significantly to falls, frailty and losses of mobility and independence ñ events which concern many older Americans. Of the many factors which contribute to muscle aging, our work has focused on mutations of the mitochondrial genome and...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
Autophagy, meaning self-eating in Greek, is an important pathway that eukaryotic cells use to degrade and recycle un-needed or harmful cellular contents. Autophagy has been found to decrease in aged cells and tissues, suggesting that the decline of autophagy may contribute to aging. In addition,...  >> MORE
2010 New Scholar Award in Aging
A hallmark of human aging is cognitive decline caused by various cell biological alterations in the brain such as degeneration of neurons, dysfunctional neuronal connections (also known as synapses) and other processes. Progress towards the understanding of the cellular basis of aging of the human...  >> MORE