2008 New Scholar Award in Aging

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2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Over 20 million people in the United States suffer from osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease in articular cartilage with increased incidence observed with age. This disease often reduces an individualĂ­s ability to function as a result of inflammation, pain, and decreased mobility....  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Although the body requires sufficient nutrition to function in optimal conditions, mild energy restriction has been shown to improve metabolic disorders, improve cognition and prolong longevity. Thus well-regulated homeostasis appears to be an important factor in increasing lifespan. AMPKinase is...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
While almost half of the human genome is occupied by mobile element-related sequences, LINEs (Long INterspersed Elements, L1s) and their parasites are the only active mobile elements still altering DNA composition and perturbing the stability of the host genome. The best characterized and most well...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Chromatin, the complex of DNA and associated proteins, is the physiological form of our genome. Chromatin is a dynamic template governed by intricate regulation, the mechanisms of which are just beginning to unfold. The basic fundamental repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, which consists...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Aging is associated with a decline in cardiac performance and an increase in the incidence of heart failure. Following a heart attack, there is immediate damage to a section of the heart muscle. Older patients after heart attacks are more likely to suffer heart failure or die, compared to young...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases are caused by mutant forms of proteins prone to clumping, or aggregation. These diseases are strongly age-associated, suggesting that protein aggregates or the inability to resolve them may worsen with age. Even in cells that do not carry...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Cognitive decline and dementia pose an enormous public health burden associated with aging that is projected to grow dramatically over the coming decades. Individuals with cognitive performance lower than expected for age are diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and are at increased risk...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging

Fully stretched out, the DNA in each mammalian cell extends roughly six feet in length. To fit within the confines of a cell, this DNA is wound around specialized proteins and thereby condensed into a compact form called chromatin. The structure of chromatin is tightly regulated to modulate...  >> MORE

2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Lifespan is the result of a complicated interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Until recently, genetic research of lifespan has focused on the identification of genes that predispose to common age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in an aging population. Cardiac aging is predominantly characterized by hypertrophy and fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac aging are unknown. The aging heart is stiff, possesses less contractile power and is more...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
The production of and degradation of cellular proteins is a tightly regulated process. Regulated protein degradation is critical for many cellular processes such as aging and cell growth. Even under normal conditions, up to 30% of all cell proteins fail to fold properly, and are immediately...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
The identification of specific genes that regulate the lifespan of different organisms has revealed key determinants of aging beyond environmental stress. While these remarkable discoveries have provided a genetic basis for lifespan, the fundamental mechanisms by which particular genes regulate...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Age is the greatest risk factor for many diseases, including cancer. With a rapidly growing aging population, this is becoming an increasingly important health issue in our society. One approach to start addressing this problem is to understand how genes affect the aging process. Experimental...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging

Studies of the basic mechanisms of aging have led to the identification of many genes modulate life span in model organisms. Despite these advances, however, the molecular mechanism(s) that determine human longevity and susceptibility to age-associated disease remain poorly understood. We have...  >> MORE

2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
The age-associated decline in immune function with advancing age, termed immunosenescence, has been well documented in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Indeed, the decline in immune function itself may contribute to the aging process. We propose to identify and...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging

Aging is hormonally regulated and we are interested in identifying genetic determinants that function upstream of these endocrine pathways. Recent studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that altered regulation of steroid and insulin/IGF-1-like hormones can substantially...  >> MORE

2008 New Scholar Award in Aging

Age and obesity are two factors that predispose individuals to Type II diabetes. Although the connection between obesity, age and the onset of Type II diabetes is well recognized, the molecular basis for it remains elusive. My laboratory studies the molecular mechanisms that may explain the...  >> MORE

2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Best-known for lifespan extension, dietary restriction produces two equally tangible benefits: improved healthspan and increased resistance to acute stress. Dietary restriction comprises a variety of feeding regimes focused either on reducing total calorie intake (calorie restriction) or enforced...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging

Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic soil worm that has been successfully employed to identify genetic factors regulating aging. Much work remains, however, in order to understand how genetic alterations relate to life extension, and how to translate this information to humans. In the...  >> MORE

2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Many neurodegenerative disorders that manifest late in life are caused by mutations that disrupt proper folding of proteins. While young cells often have the capacity to withstand stress caused by misfolded protein overload, old cells frequently succumb to such stress and hence lead to degenerative...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
The free radical theory of aging was proposed by Denham Harman more than 50 years ago, and has been perhaps the most actively studied mechanistic theory of aging. It is based on the idea that oxygen free radicals, in particular mitochondrial superoxide, are normally generated within cells, yet are...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging

Increased susceptibility to infectious diseases is one of the main problems associated with old age. Underlying this susceptibility are diverse age-related changes in the immune system, including reduced repertoire of white blood cells, impaired antibody responses and enhanced proinflammatory...  >> MORE

2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Aging is characterized by the declining ability to respond to stress, increasing homeostatic imbalance, and increased risk of disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may provide the scientific explanation for how and why many of the medical complications of the aging process occur. AGEs...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
Aging is a progressive event that often associates with decreased physical strength and abnormal cognitive functions such as impaired memory. The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, for example Parkinson's and sporadic Alzheimer's disease, increases most strongly with age. Genetic factors...  >> MORE
2008 New Scholar Award in Aging
The mechanisms that cause the deterioration of cellular functions during the aging process remain poorly understood. Alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism may be particularly important because it affects a wide range of cellular processes, and any defect will have widespread consequences...  >> MORE